Family Instruction Treasure Book 11: Ban Zhao family Instruction “Female Commandments”
Ban Zhao, historian of the Eastern Han Dynasty, daughter of Historian Ban Biao, sister of Ban Gu and Ban Chao.During the Reign of Emperor Han he, he served as a teacher for empresses and concubines.Because of her marriage to Cao Shishu, she was called cao Everybody (Yingu), which was a respectful title for elderly women in The Guanzhong area during the Han Dynasty.”Female Admonitions” is a private book written by Ban Zhao to teach women in class how to be a man, including seven chapters, such as weak, husband and wife, respect and caution, women’s behavior, concentration, qu Cong, uncle and sister.After the publication of The Women’s Commandments, it has always been the basic criterion for female cultivation in traditional Chinese society. The requirements for women in successive dynasties are basically consistent with the norms of the Women’s Commandments, which shows its great influence.The second way of husband and wife, combining Yin and Yang, connects to the gods, believes in the great righteousness of heaven and earth, and the great festival of human relations.In view of the fact that men and women are ceremoniously honored, the significance of “Poetry” and “Guan Sui” cannot be ignored.If not good, then beyond royal;If a woman is not good, she cannot serve her husband.The husband does not royal wife, is the lack of prestige;If a woman does not serve her husband, her sense of justice falls into the threshold.Fangs has both uses.Observing the gentleman today, only know the wife can not royal, the dignity can not be incomplete, so the training of the male, check with the book, they do not know the husband of the Lord can not not matter, the rites of justice can not be saved, but teach men and not teach women, not also covered in each other’s number.Propriety, eight years old beginning to teach the book, fifteen and as for learning yi, alone can not be this zai.The fourth woman has four practices: the first is her virtue, the second her speech, the third her appearance, and the fourth her skill.Fu Yun fu de, do not have to be completely different;Women’s words, do not have to argue eloquence also;Women do not have to be beautiful in color;You don’t have to be skilled to be a woman.Leisure chastity, orderly, line has shame, movement law, is that women virtue;Choose words and say, not bad words, and then words, not disgusted with people, is that women;Washing dust toureous, clothes fresh clean, bath to, the body is not dirty insult, is called the woman;Concentrate on spinning, not drama laugh, clean qi wine and food for guests, is called fu gong.These four, women of the festival, and do not lack without also.But it is very easy, only in the ear.The ancients said: “benevolence far zai, I want to benevolence, and benevolence to.”This is also called.The ancients believed that the union of man and woman as husband and wife was a great event, just as heaven and earth matched Yin and Yang.And whether the couple can deal with each other well, is related to the harmony and happiness of family life.However, the traditional emphasis on male education and the neglect of female education is not conducive to the harmony of family relations. Therefore, Ban Zhao pointed out in the Female Admonitions, “As everyone knows, it is necessary for the husband to do things, and the etiquette and righteousness must be preserved, but teaching male education instead of female education is not just for each other.”She thought that it was true that it was propriety for a woman to serve her husband, but it did not accord with the requirement of propriety to educate a man but not a woman.At the same time, Ban Zhao put forward four standards of women’s conduct in “Women’s Commandments” : “women’s virtue, women’s speech, women’s appearance and women’s merit”, which are also worth our modern reference.And the core of it is moral cultivation, the idea of speaking well, looking clean, and being good at housekeeping, which is not outdated by now.The doctrine of husband and wife, the doctrine of husband and wife, is the compatibility of Yin and Yang, the communion with the gods, the general righteousness of heaven and earth, and the foundation of human relations.Therefore, the Book of Rites lays emphasis on the relationship between men and women, and the Book of Songs clarifies the meaning of Guan Ju. In this sense, we cannot ignore it.Husband is not good, good wife;A bad wife cannot serve her husband well.If a husband does not manage his wife well, his prestige and manners will be abandoned.If the wife does not serve her husband well, the family loses its moral integrity.It’s the same thing on both sides.Why do they not know that the service of a wife to her husband is a matter of propriety in the house? Is it not improper for one to teach the male, and not the female?According to the Rites of Zhou, people began to read at the age of eight and learned at the age of fifteen.Women’s behavior 4: women have four kinds of morality, called women’s virtue, women’s speech, women’s appearance, women’s merit.When it comes to women’s virtue, it does not mean that they are very distinguished;Women, not necessarily articulate;Women, not necessarily beautiful appearance;Women are not always skilled.To be demure and demure, to be serious and orderly, to do what one ought to do, to be shameless and principled, is called female virtue;Speak carefully, do not say difficult obedient, should say only, do not let people hate, this is called women’s speech;Love clean, clean clothes, bath on time, clean body, this is called women;Concentrate on weaving, do not like to play, prepare clean and neat wine and food, entertain visitors, this is called fu gong.These four aspects are the basic principles for women and cannot be missing.It is of course easy to do, but we should pay attention to it.The ancients said: benevolence is difficult to do?I wanted kindness, and kindness came.That’s the point.