What’s the difference between the old people and the officials?

2022-05-09 0 By

Since ancient times, the social security system has been an important pillar to maintain the social development of the whole country.With the change of dynasties, the life expectancy of the population increases, and the aging problem appears. Supporting the elderly has become one of the problems that the upper society must solve.Chinese society has been deeply influenced by Confucian culture, “erudite in writing, about etiquette”, the thought of governing the country by “etiquette” is reflected in the construction of social mechanism.First of all, “rites” at the personal level means that people should do things in line with the overall interests of virtue, follow filial piety;Secondly, at the level of national governance, the ruling class should also conform to the restriction of “rites” and settle down the family and the country with “filial piety”.In addition, “filial piety” means the rationality of supporting the elderly, which can restrain the people from the ideological and moral level and establish a unified and political concept of supporting the elderly.In the Qing Dynasty, the official promulgations of the Oracle, which is a programmatic document to change the morals and vulgarity.The first chapter reveals the status of filial piety: “The man who is filial is the sutras of heaven, the righteousness of the earth and the behavior of the people.Do not know filial parents, only do not think of parents love the heart of children…Parents of virtue, with wu Tian extremely!If the Son of man wants to show kindness to his relatives in case, let him do his best inside, let him thirst for strength outside, and let him be self-disciplined, diligent and filial.”This document clearly stressed that supporting parents is equal to “filial piety”, and began to restrain children’s behavior from the moral level, so that they shoulder the responsibility of family pension;At the same time, the state in the form of institutional pension (private and government) to assume social responsibility, and strive for peace and prosperity of the country.In the Regulations of the Qing Dynasty, social security measures such as the adoption of orphaned old people, preferential compensation for military families, and the return of family members of deceased officials to their hometowns were clearly stipulated from the perspective of law.Pension as an important part of social security is defined separately.The Household Law of the Qing Dynasty follows the Law of The Great Ming Dynasty and the Criminal Law, which stipulates that refusal to support parents will be severely punished.Crimes involving the elderly can be commuted. If the only son commits a crime and needs to take care of the elderly, the punishment of the law is commuted to ensure that the elderly are properly supported.Officials pension officials are different from ordinary people, because in ancient times, after you came to Beijing to take the examination, most of you had to leave your hometown, career far away from home.It is not unusual to be asked to stay in the centre if one is lucky, or to be asked to be appointed everywhere if one is not.In this case,Qing dynasty statutes have clear requirements: “who shall be elected personnel, there are old, willing to eventually raise, in the article, the province constitutes the magistrate, turn detailed client has a final enrollment to raise, if the current official grandparents, parents, more than seventy home no time reading, or have any brothers and Benedict disease cannot ShiYang, and mother old, although have brothers and half-brother, their parents more than eighty, although the home one time, wish to invite the final foster, or after the official, brother suddenly accident no one to attend, or step-parents died, their natural parents are old and ill, wish to invite the final foster, not limited to three years of salary.”To put it simply, someone in the family is to give your family subsidies “on behalf of the government for your pension”, if not so is the government to provide retirement salary as a pension for you.The retirement of qing officials was called zhi shi.Officials with three or more titles were represented by themselves, those with four titles or less were examined by the imperial court, and those with local titles were examined by the governor.Officials’ retirement benefits are related to their work performance, such as retirement benefits and land grants, which can be used for retirement.In addition, “Qing Dynasty Association Codes” also stipulated the pension treatment after the retirement of noble children, children of the eight banners in the military personnel over the age of 60 and the discharged personnel, according to the post during the tenure, tenure, salary level and other conditions, after the application of 50% salary;No salary will be paid if the applicant has not reached the age of 60 or is discharged due to illness.In addition, in order to ensure fairness, at the same time, the provisions of the imperial house and the official house under the imperial house and the children of the incumbent officials do not give salary.Institutional pension Local folk pension institutions began to be established as early as the Tang Dynasty, reducing social pressure, but also created a new pension model.In the Ming Dynasty, the Law of Households in The Great Ming Dynasty contained: “Those who are lonely and sick, poor and have no relatives to rely on, and cannot survive by themselves, who should be adopted by the government and private but do not adopt, shall have a rod of sixty;If they should be given food and clothing, and the officials are reduced, they shall be regarded as inside thieves.”In the Ming Dynasty, if the elderly were unable to support themselves, officials and officials should bear part of the responsibility for supporting them, such as giving material, otherwise they would be severely punished.In the Qing Dynasty, the government integrated the laws of the former dynasty and added detailed rules and clauses, making the application scope of institutional endowment more extensive.However, in the Qing Dynasty, according to the Regulations of the Qing Dynasty, “Criminals such as soldiers who were over 60 years old and unable to eat were routinely allocated to a hospice and given rations to the poor and destitute by name. Those who were not more than 60 years old and could not make a living should also be allocated as a whole.”That is to say, people and prisoners who are over 60 years old and unable to take care of themselves are all supported by government-run hospices with regular rations so that they can make a living.Thus, it can be seen that the legal system for the elderly set up in the Qing Dynasty is still scattered and not systematic, but it can emphasize filial piety on the basis of the social system, give consideration to fairness, combine the forms of family pension and social pension, consider the retirement of officials for the elderly, basically cover the majority of people, and lay a foundation for the improvement of the pension system later.Since the emergence of the concept of social endowment, people mainly take home care, supplemented by social institutions for the elderly.The Qing Dynasty inherited the previous pension model, and on this basis emphasized the importance of home care, improve efficiency, and play a subjective initiative in the implementation of pension security policy. First, it advocated and created a good social atmosphere of respecting the elderly and supporting the elderly;The second is to give the elderly more generous material subsidies, such as rice, wine, meat, silk, as a gift or reward, or even give an honorary title;Third, it encouraged the young to take care of the old, and made a policy of removing corvee labor from imperial corvee.In the year of Shunzhi Yuan, “if the army and people were over seventy years old, I promised to take care of them and exempt them from service.”Support for the elderly, and even work can be reduced.By the time of Emperor Qianlong’s reign, the elderly over 80 years old were not only treated as servants, but also rewarded in kind. The elderly over 100 years old were awarded the honor of “building a square”.Whether it is material reward or spirit honor, greatly aroused the enthusiasm of the people’s family to provide for the aged.